Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis most commonly attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, bones, joints and even the skin. Other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium microti can also cause tuberculosis. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis makes effective treatment possible and increases the probability of clinical outcome owing to quite effective antituberculosis therapy, however the tuberculosis diagnosis has certain difficulties. The application of molecular biology methods allow to overcome the difficulties in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but due to the biological peculiarities of this microorganism and immune response of human organism, tuberculosis cannot be diagnosed only by one method.

The development of test to differentiate between infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and vaccination with M. bovis BCG could greatly assist in the diagnosis of early infection as well as enhance the use of tuberculosis vaccines on a wider scale.

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